It estimates the F-score for a nominal/categorical predicted-observed dataset.

## Usage

```
fscore(
data = NULL,
obs,
pred,
B = 1,
pos_level = 2,
atom = FALSE,
tidy = FALSE,
na.rm = TRUE
)
```

## Arguments

- data
(Optional) argument to call an existing data frame containing the data.

- obs
Vector with observed values (character | factor).

- pred
Vector with predicted values (character | factor).

- B
Numeric value indicating the weight (a.k.a. B or beta) to be applied to the relationship between recall and precision. B < 1 weights more precision than recall. B > 1 gives B times more importance to recall than precision. Default: 1.

- pos_level
Integer, for binary cases, indicating the order (1|2) of the level corresponding to the positive. Generally, the positive level is the second (2) since following an alpha-numeric order, the most common pairs are

`(Negative | Positive)`

,`(0 | 1)`

,`(FALSE | TRUE)`

. Default : 2.- atom
Logical operator (TRUE/FALSE) to decide if the estimate is made for each class (atom = TRUE) or at a global level (atom = FALSE); Default : FALSE. When dataset is "binomial" atom does not apply.

- tidy
Logical operator (TRUE/FALSE) to decide the type of return. TRUE returns a data.frame, FALSE returns a list; Default : FALSE.

- na.rm
Logic argument to remove rows with missing values (NA). Default is na.rm = TRUE.

## Value

an object of class `numeric`

within a `list`

(if tidy = FALSE) or within a
`data frame`

(if tidy = TRUE).

## Details

The F-score (or F-measure) it is a more robust metric than the classic accuracy, especially when the number of cases for each class is uneven. It represents the harmonic mean of precision and recall. Thus, to achieve high values of F-score it is necessary to have both high precision and high recall.

The universal version of F-score employs a coefficient B, by which we can tune the precision-recall ratio. Values of B > 1 give more weight to recall, and B < 1 give more weight to precision.

For binomial/binary cases, fscore = TP / (TP + 0.5*(FP + FN))

The generalized formula applied to multiclass cases is:

\(fscore = \frac{(1 + B ^ 2) * (precision * recall)} {((B ^ 2 * precision) + recall)} \)

It is bounded between 0 and 1. The closer to 1 the better. Values towards zero indicate low performance. For the formula and more details, see online-documentation

## References

Goutte, C., Gaussier, E. (2005).
A Probabilistic Interpretation of Precision, Recall and F-Score, with Implication for Evaluation.
*In: D.E. Losada and J.M. Fernandez-Luna (Eds.): ECIR 2005*
*. Advances in Information Retrieval LNCS 3408, pp. 345–359, 2.*
*Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.* doi:10.1007/978-3-540-31865-1_25

## Examples

```
# \donttest{
set.seed(123)
# Two-class
binomial_case <- data.frame(labels = sample(c("True","False"), 100, replace = TRUE),
predictions = sample(c("True","False"), 100, replace = TRUE))
# Multi-class
multinomial_case <- data.frame(labels = sample(c("Red","Blue", "Green"), 100, replace = TRUE),
predictions = sample(c("Red","Blue", "Green"), 100, replace = TRUE) )
# Get F-score estimate for two-class case
fscore(data = binomial_case, obs = labels, pred = predictions, tidy = TRUE)
#> fscore
#> 1 0.5048544
# Get F-score estimate for each class for the multi-class case
fscore(data = multinomial_case, obs = labels, pred = predictions, tidy = TRUE)
#> Warning: For multiclass cases, the fscore should be estimated at a class level. Please, consider using `atom = TRUE`
#> fscore
#> 1 0.2787609
# Get F-score estimate for the multi-class case at a global level
fscore(data = multinomial_case, obs = labels, pred = predictions, tidy = TRUE)
#> Warning: For multiclass cases, the fscore should be estimated at a class level. Please, consider using `atom = TRUE`
#> fscore
#> 1 0.2787609
# }
```